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Pregnancy rates among women in the U. Yet little research has addressed mental health, risk and resilience among young mothers who are homeless. This study utilizes a sample of women from the Midwest Longitudinal Study of Homeless Adolescents MLSHA to investigate pregnancy and motherhood over three years among unaccompanied homeless young mothers. Our data Homeless pregnant women naked supplemented by in-depth interviews with a subset of these women. Among young mothers who are homeless, only half reported that they helped to care for their children consistently over time, and one-fifth of the women reported never seeing their children.

Of the young women with children in their care at the last interview of the study Wave 13almost one-third met criteria for lifetime major depressive episode MDElifetime posttraumatic stress disorder PTSDand lifetime drug abuse, and one-half met criteria for lifetime antisocial personality disorder APD. Twelve-month diagnoses are also reported. The impacts of homelessness on maternal and child outcomes are discussed, including the implications for practice, policy, and research.

Homeless pregnant women naked particular concern is the number of young women who become pregnant Homeless pregnant women naked homeless. This number has been steadily growing over the last 30 years. This study is based on a sample of young women who were homeless aged 16—19 at baseline and who participated in a Homeless pregnant women naked longitudinal study that followed homeless adolescents as they moved from late adolescence into early adulthood.

The findings are Homeless pregnant women naked by in-depth interviews with a subsample of these women. We investigated pregnancy, mental health, and motherhood at baseline and across the three years of the study.

Conference of Mayors,due to family problems, economic disadvantage, or residential instability Duffield, Most women who are homeless have been pregnant at some point in their lives.

Furthermore, youth who are homeless may be at increased risk for multiple pregnancies. These statistics are not surprising when one looks at contraception use among homeless young people. This is especially problematic among those who are monogamous.

Women in stable relationship were two times more likely to forgo contraceptive use than those women with multiple partners Gelberg et al. Homelessness may have serious negative consequences for the health of pregnant women regardless of age at which they become pregnant. However, these effects may be more pronounced among younger women. Adolescent pregnancies tend to be difficult Homeless pregnant women naked and emotionally even among young women who are housed and have intact support systems.

Women who are homeless also report high rates of alcohol consumption while pregnant. Wagner and Menke estimated that thirty-eight percent of women Homeless pregnant women naked their sample who were homeless drank alcohol while pregnant.

Alcohol use while pregnant also is associated with alcohol related neurological effects among offspring, including fetal alcohol spectral disorders Chapman et al. Recent estimates put the rate of miscarriage among women who are homeless at between 35 and 70 percent depending on samples Gelberg et al.

Many mothers who are homeless end up relinquishing their children either voluntarily or involuntarily to family members or to the child welfare system. This is particularly true of younger women who have may have fewer resources to draw upon. Much of what we know about being a parent comes from the ways we have been parented. The results are academic problems, rejection by conventional peers, and drift into nonconventional peer groups that tolerate and reciprocate this style of interaction.

If dysfunctional families are basic training for antisocial behaviors, certainly homeless episodes provide advanced training. Moreover, dysfunctional families Homeless pregnant women naked street experiences take an emotional toll.

Many young people who are homeless meet criteria for mental and substance abuse disorders or related symptoms. Couple this with the higher risk of low birth weight babies of difficult temperament, unstable housing, poverty, and few sources of social support, and you have young parents who are poorly prepared for the stresses of parenthood.

It is difficult for any adolescent to become a parent but the risk for young people who are homeless is amplified by history and their current situation. Rutter and colleagues have shown that young women from abusive family backgrounds can learn to be good parents.

However, they must specifically reject negative family experiences and choose another way to bring up their children. Many young women who become pregnant while homeless will lack the necessary support and opportunities to learn these important skills.

Recent estimates indicate that twenty-three percent of the homeless population is composed of families with children U. Women who experience homelessness often have increased rates of pregnancy and few life chances. A shortage of affordable housing, an increase in poverty, and substantial changes in welfare policies have put many single female headed families one financial emergency away from homelessness Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, ; National Coalition for the Homeless, a ; b.

We know very little about young women who are homeless who become pregnant or what happens to their children. We are aware of no prospective studies that have followed them Homeless pregnant women naked their pregnancies and beyond.

Also, we have found no research that provides diagnostic information regarding the mental health and substance use of pregnant women who are homeless.

In this study we will report on the pregnancy outcomes of young women who experience homelessness and provide the results of screenings for mental health and substance use diagnoses at the times the women were pregnant. The data used for this report are from the Midwest Longitudinal Study of Homeless Adolescents MLSHAa wave 3-year study of adolescent youth who have experienced homelessness in four Midwestern states.

To be eligible to participate, the young person had to be between the ages of 16 and 19 years old and homeless at the time of the baseline interviews. Our definition of "homeless" was that the adolescent had to reside in a shelter, on the street, or be living independently e.

Of the respondents who completed the first baseline interview, Twenty-six of the original respondents did not complete the diagnostic interview.

Those who did not complete the interview had a significantly higher age at first run away The respondents were interviewed by full time, specially trained interviewers directly on the streets and in shelters in eight Midwestern cities St. The adolescents ranged in age from 16 to 19 years with an average age of Fifteen percent identified themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual.

The adolescents were informed that this was a longitudinal study and the tracking protocols were explained. Informed consent was a two-stage process. First, the study was explained, and informed consent was obtained from the adolescent.

They were assured that refusal to participate in the study, refusal of any question, or stopping the interview process at any time would have no effect on current or future services provided by the outreach agency in which the interviewer was placed. Second, all adolescents were asked if Hot wife car tumblr could contact their parents.

If permission was granted, parents were contacted, and informed consent to talk to a minor less than 18 years was verbally obtained. The parents were also asked to participate in a computer assisted telephone interview. Results from the parent interviews are not discussed in this study. If the adolescent was sheltered, we followed shelter policies Kim basingers sex scene parental permission for placement and guidelines concerning granting such permissions.

These policies were always based on state laws. Homeless pregnant women naked the few cases where the adolescent was under 18 years, not sheltered, and refused permission to contact parents, the adolescents were treated as emancipated minors in accordance with National Institute of Health guidelines National Institute of Health, A National Institute of Mental Health Certificate of Confidentiality was obtained to protect the respondent's statements regarding potentially illegal activities e.

They then returned to their shelters and administered Homeless pregnant women naked "practice" interviews with staff and respondents 20 years or older. After completing their practice interviews, the interviewers returned to the university for a second week of training. All interviews were conducted on laptop computers and downloaded electronically to a special secure university server. This sampling design involved repeatedly checking locations where homeless youths were likely to be found in each of Homeless pregnant women naked target cities.

Locations included shelters and outreach programs serving homeless youths, drop-in centers, and various street locations where young homeless people were most likely to be located. The interviewers Hose indian pantie sex had prior experience in their respective cities as youth outreach workers and brought considerable knowledge regarding optimal areas of the city for locating youths on their own.

The sampling protocol included going to these locations in the cities at varying times of Homeless pregnant women naked day on both weekdays and weekends over the course of 12 months.

Because episodes of homelessness are of varying duration, a one-year time frame provided an increased probability of capturing youths who have short-term exposure to homelessness. The interviewers were instructed to continue recruiting until their caseload reached 60 adolescents who they would then track and re-interview at three-month intervals.

The baseline interview consisted of social history and symptom scales. In addition, the respondent was then asked to meet for a second interview during which the diagnostic interviews were conducted. These two interviews made up the baseline assessment for the study and usually were completed within one or two days so that no significant time lapsed between the first part of the baseline interview and the second diagnostic interview.

It is important to note that even with our detailed sampling design; our sample is not random and is not representative of all homeless youth. The qualitative data used throughout this paper were supported by a University of Nebraska-Lincoln Faculty Seed Grant.

These funds supported semi-structured interviews with a subsample of 40 16 males and 24 females MLSHA subjects. Project interviewers conducted the interviews which were audio taped and transcribed by project workers. All identifying information was removed from the transcript files and demographic information was tracked using subject identification numbers.

The interviews lasted on average, about one hour. Transcripts were thematically coded by authors, focusing on any discussion of pregnancy, birth, babies, children, or motherhood. The results were compared across coders for inter-reliability and included in this paper to illustrate the unique experiences homeless mothers face. The first names used in this report are fictional.

Because of the nature of our sampling design, we have provided results from three separate sub-samples: baseline interviews, longitudinal interviews Homeless pregnant women naked 2—13Homeless pregnant women naked the final contact interview.

Each of these subsamples is described in detail below. At baseline, a total of Homeless pregnant women naked women were interviewed. Our baseline sample consisted of sexually active female adolescents who were asked questions about their history of pregnancy. Of these women, had experienced a pregnancy and Homeless pregnant women naked subsequent questions on pregnancy and childbirth. Thus, our baseline sample consists of the women who had experienced a pregnancy.

Our longitudinal sample consists of women who had viable data from baseline contact and at least one follow-up wave of our study. Longitudinal data from Kansas City was deleted from the sample because of the termination of the interviewer at that location which resulted in loss of multiple waves of data after baseline data collection Kansas City was included in the baseline descriptives.

In total, 41 women were deleted from longitudinal data because they were from the Kansas City sampling frame. In total, 29 women were deleted in our longitudinal analyses because they only had viable data at baseline. Of the women who were interviewed at baseline and a follow-up wave, Naked best ass boys young women answered questions indicating that they had Homeless pregnant women naked pregnant at some point between Waves 2—13 which we will refer to as Subsample I see Table 2 and Table 4.

In total, 90 women answered that they had children at some point between Waves 2—13 which we Sexy paige spills on her satin slip refer to as Subsample II see Table 3.

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